The humanitarian norm – or humanitarianism – is a broad concept which encompasses traditional religious humanitarian principles and the principles established by the Red Cross in the 19th century to alleviate human suffering during wartime. Humanitarian action refers to activities that are linked to the humanitarian norm; in other words, it refers to activities which aim to prevent, alleviate or eliminate human suffering during a crisis. The crisis may be a natural disaster or a man-made armed conflict. From the perspective of humanitarian nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), preventive action implies active lobbying and information sharing at the international level. NGOs raise awareness about alarming humanitarian developments, and pressure governments and intergovernmental organizations (IGOs) to take action. Relief action entails the assessment of the humanitarian situation, the mobilization and delivery of emergency aid, and its indiscriminate distribution to the persons in need. The first form of forcible humanitarian action is enforcing penalties for severe violations of international humanitarian law (IHL).