The production manager's (PM) duty is to discuss and conclude negotiations with the crew and staff in accordance with guidelines established by the producer. The PM must also arrange or oversee equipment rentals and appropriate agreements and contracts generally supplied by rental companies. His or her duties also include overseeing or negotiating and arranging for location agreements, permits, and contracts. For productions operating within union guidelines, most contract and employment details are regulated by the union's basic agreement. Nonunion productions must negotiate most terms of employment on an individual, case-by-case basis. Since motion pictures have ventured outside sound stages and studios to "real" locations all over the country and the world, the problems and procedures for temporary or permanent working permits have become more prevalent. The employment of non-Americans requires working permits for theatrical productions or commercials, but not for documentary shoots or news crews.