Training is essential for effective appraisal interviewing, just as it is in selection interviewing or other skills in personal communication which the manager has to practise. The first step in any training course is to get over to the participants the organisation's policy on appraisal and its appraisal scheme. Each organisation will have developed an appropriate scheme to suit its own circumstances and the conditions under which its employees operate. A lecture may be given that covers the general skills of interviewing that apply to selection as well as appraisal interviewing, but a lecture is a dry way of presenting material to adult students and probably the least effective. A case study may be role-played in front of the course by a tutor and another 'actor'; this may be done to demonstrate the appraisal interview technique or to demonstrate contrasting interview styles. Film can be a valuable aid in most fields of training.