Parishioners did not always appear in corpore. They were individuals with particular religious needs, and a discussion of late medieval parish life cannot ignore the existence of chapels, chantries, and fraternities. This chapter will look in turn at the main subparochial institutions, highlight their principal characteristics, and then examine their relationship with the community as a whole. The main aim will be to assess whether these services simply complemented existing religious options, or whether they posed a serious threat to the parochial system.'