Thus wrote F. Ashe Lincoln in 1939, in his history of the Hebrew starrs, documents which recorded dealings between English Jews and their neighbours in the period between 1070 and 1290. In 1908, before an earlier world war, Albert Hyamson took a less sanguine, and in terms of what was to follow during this century, a more prophetic, view of the Jewish experience in medieval England:

The history of the Jews in England is the history in miniature of the Diaspora. Since the opening of the Christian era the story of the Jews has everywhere been the same - continual alternations of prosperity and persecution. With nations as with individuals the wheel of fortune ever revolves, but with the Jews its progress seems to have been more rapid, for the alterations have been more numerous than with any other race.2