See ICJ, Legal Consequences o f the Construction o f a W all in the Occupied Palestinian Territory, Advisory Opin­ ion of 9 July 2004 [2004] ICJ Rep 136, para. 106.

5 Multi-dimensional peacekeeping operations and modern interventions have gradually led to a depar­ ture from the notion of peace in the mere absence of violence (‘negative peace’). This is, inter alia, reflected in the concept of collective ‘responsibility to protect’, which encompasses three dimensions of communitarian conflict management in cases of large-scale atrocities: preventive action, responsive action, and post-conflict engagement (‘responsibility to prevent’, ‘responsibility to react’, and ‘responsi­ bility to rebuild’). See paras. 138 and 139 of GA Res. 60/1 (2005 World Summit Outcome) of 24 Oct. 2005.