The two-party structure of Liverpool politics survived the immediate impact of the School Board elections as it had the crisis over Rivington water and dock-warehouses. The Electoral Revisions of 1872 were of unexpected significance in early 1873, when an unanticipated parliamentary by-election occurred. The Liverpool Permissive Bill Association marked the beginning of its electoral activities at the 1872 election. The surge of political enthusiasm following the 1867 Reform Act and the political dis-alignments caused by the School Board election of 1872, put great strain on the two Liverpool parties. The Liverpool clergy took the most unusual step of making a public appeal on behalf of Catholic candidates at an election. In February, 1874, Liverpool had its fourth election within a year following Gladstone’s request for a dissolution on 26 January. The situation in Liverpool was peculiar in that the Liverpool United Trades Council included a high proportion of Conservatives.