The iceberg is a metaphor used in organizational research to illustrate that many aspects of organizations are hidden from sight. To the observer, only the tip of the iceberg, the organization’s formal aspect, is visible, and even then one’s attention is frequently directed to the areas that are lit by the sun, that is, the display aspect. The far larger part of the iceberg-the stances and attitudes of the members, the shortcuts they use, their informal day-to-day practices-lies below the surface and is barely recognizable to the external viewer.