Integrative communication is undertaken for a variety of reasons-to inform, persuade, develop relationships, prevent misunderstandings, promote ideology, advocate a point of view or break down barriers. Therefore, it must not be conducted haphazardly. Careful thought must be given to how to deliver messages 'in a way that enables recipients to understand, react to, and act upon the information received' .1 The intended audience must receive, understand and act upon the message. This requires a straightforward, step-by-step process called 'communication planning'. This process clearly and logically summarizes what to say, how to say it and how to evaluate its success or failure. 2
Windahl, Signitzer and Olson3 write that communication planning is broader in scope than communication campaigns. According to them, campaigns usually have a specific and fixed objective-'to influence some or all groups in society with a specific message or set of messages' .4 On the other hand, communication planning, although it contains campaigns as an important component, encompasses comprehensive goals, objectives, structure and functions. Inett and Shewchuk explain5 describe these goals, objectives, structures and functions. They see communication planning as a foundation on which to base decision and generate ideas. It is a means of focusing where you want to be and what needs to be done to get there. It is a tool for discovering opportunities, optimizing challenges and initiating change. Also, it is a means of monitoring communications efforts.