This chapter pays attention to the perception of European friends or enemies according to the principle of identifying difference. The key distinction here is between 'Us' ('Our' friends and allies) as opposed to 'Them' (those who do not favour 'Us' or who are even our enemies). This analysis is presented in the context of interpretations of the achievement of Czech national sovereignty and the rise of Czechoslovak Republic in October 1918. It has drawn upon a representative selection of 31 school history books according to the different partial epochs of Czechoslovakia's history between October 28,1918 and December 31,1992. Understanding the perception of European friends or enemies (and the process of commemorative ritualism parallel to the recognition of such 'friendship' in official textbook discourse) is an important element of constructing a wider (European) identity. Recurrent discontinuities within this discourse make such constructions more difficult to establish and legitimize in the changing envirorunent.