This chapter shows that in the course of the 20th century, and especially in the last 30 years, the debate among Europeans on European civilization has been increasingly marked by (simplified versions of) the concept of 'multiple modernities'. Around 2000 it was clearly not the only view of Europe held by Europeans, but it was an important one. The rise of this concept in European self-understanding has to do with the historical context of the second half of the twentieth century, characterized by decolonization, the division of Europe, globalization and immigration. The confrontation with these experiences did away with the belief in Europe's lasting superiority. The growing prominence of 'multiple modernities' concepts also has to do with the changing character of European social and cultural particularities. Whereas these particularities had been previously interpreted as aspects of Europe's and the West's leading position in modernity, they are increasingly viewed not as a distinguishing feature of Europe but rather as one variant of a global modernity.