This chapter provides an analytical perspective for studying Swedish collective action over time. On several occasions, collective action organizations have defended the political order in Sweden and other countries. Most Swedish social movements began as revisionary collective action organizations but have evolved into conservative ones. They resist further political, economic, and social change and find it difficult to renew their goals to reflect the current needs of their members and society at large. Perhaps the concept of civil society is best understood when it is contrasted with the concept of mass society. Swedish historians and social scientists have contributed greatly by offering definitions of social movements. They have specified a number of criteria, many of which have been incorporated into the typology of social movements and interest organizations. The criterion of independence of social movements from their counterpart is also problematic, as many organizations Swedish social movements are highly reliant on government.