Until October 1860, the controversy over Essays and Reviews was effectively confined to the specifically religious press, and the general public knew little of its existence. Frederic Harrison's article, entitled 'Neo-Christianity', proclaimed its glee at finding the spokesmen of Christianity vindicating the principles of rationalism. The 'residuum' of Christianity left by the Essayists was not enough for a religion. 'Religion, to have strength, must have a doctrine; and a doctrine, to endure now, must embody the outgrowth of human thought'. The Essayists were trapped: rationalists were told that they were inadequate, and Churchmen were told that they were unorthodox. The Westminster Review brought Essays and Reviews to the attention of the educated public, as the religious periodicals had brought it to the attention of the clergy. Harrison treated Essays and Reviews as 'a manifesto from a body of kindred or associated thinkers' opening a new phase of religion.