Some pamphlets were republications of articles which had first appeared in periodicals. Of the approximately 150 pamphlets directed against Essays and Reviews, the largest number appeared in the first half of 1861. In 1860 the controversy had been largely confined to the periodicals, but some pamphlets began to appear. The pamphlet literature was regularly followed and reviewed by the religious press, particularly the weekly Record and Guardian, the fortnightly Literary Churchman and Clerical Journal, and the quarterly learned journal, the Journal of Sacred Literature. The pulpit of Oxford University was particularly used to attack Essays and Reviews. The link between the sporadic pamphleteering of 1860 and the furious pace of 1861 was supplied by Alexander McCaul, the evangelical active in the clergy petition and in Convocation. The Bible was throughout free from error: 'the Bible, the whole Bible, and nothing but the Bible is the written word of God'.