This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a generic historical overview of the development of mass media in Russia after the demise of communism. It discusses three main topics: conceptualisation of the Russian media system and terms of reference; journalism: culture, role conceptions, and relationship with power, culture, and society; and mediatisation of conflict and national identities: conflict reporting and nation-building. The book also discusses the history of Radio Echo of Moscow and the pressures and challenges journalists face there. It traces the historical development and state of Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. The book provides a rich empirical account of the daily routine journalists follow, including the virtual editorial meetings with their colleagues in Prague. It summarises the common challenges Russia's liberal media face under President Putin and the coping strategies and mechanisms they adopt in their battle to survive and make a difference.