This chapter provides a historical account of the development of the mass media in post-Soviet Russia. It is split into three main sections: Mass Media Development after Communism and Before Putin, Mass Media in Putin's Russia, and Russia's Liberal Media. The chapter presents the key trends in the development of free media immediately after the fall of the Berlin Wall, including the legacy of "perestroika" and Yeltsin's role. It outlines the key changes and challenges after President Vladimir Putin came to power. The chapter discusses development of liberal media that is investigated through a focus on a few common challenges such as propaganda, financial issues, threats and harassment, legal restrictions, and self-censorship. Liberal media are generally "held in high regard by the country's intelligentsia" but have "little influence over the voting masses". Another big issue that journalists from liberal media face is the lack of safety and the high number of attacks and murders.