This introduction presents an overview of key concepts covered in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book provides a general introduction to the challenges and future trends in the community management of rural water services. This is followed by a systematic review of the global evidence on the 'success factors' for community management that helps illustrate the variety of practices applied around the world. The book discusses the Indian operating context that considers the differences between states in terms of rural water supply access, political economy and geography. It assesses the trends for two key topics: the 'gender dimensions of community management' and the 'regulation and monitoring of community management', respectively. Finally, the book offers a discussion about the intersection between local self-government and community management within India, discusses the international implications of the research for other regions where community management is commonly followed, and provides the final conclusions from the research.