This chapter focuses on the gender dimensions of community management. Given their long-established, active role, women usually are very knowledgeable about current water sources, their quality and reliability, and any restrictions to their use. Men are usually more concerned with water for irrigation or for livestock. Because of these different roles and incentives, it is important to fully involve both women and men in demand-driven water and sanitation programmes, where communities decide what type of systems they want and are willing to contribute financially. Women have long been associated with community management. Often they hold positions as trustworthy and valuable members of water committees. This research reinforces this claim by showing that women commonly play a critical role at the community-service-provider level. However, it also highlights challenges, particularly in terms of the representation and role of women at the enabling-support-environment level, which continues to be male dominated across many of the case studies.