As brilliantly discussed by Richard Feynman in his seminal lecture at an American Physical Society meeting at Caltech on December 29, 1959, “ere is a plenty of room at the bottom.” “[…] in no other field than biology are scientists making more rapid progress. […] and to answer questions relating to the most central and fundamental problems of biology […] we should make

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Optical Microscopy

and Spatial Resolution

1.3 Super-Resolution 1.4 Circumventing the

Diffraction Barrier 1.5 Super-Resolved

Ensemble Fluorophore Microscopy: Targeted Read-Out Approach

1.6 Super-Resolved Single Fluorophore MicroscopyStochastic “Read-Out” Approach

1.7 Nanoscopium Nominare Libuit

Acknowledgments References

the … microscope 100 times better” [1]. e tremendous progress in the biological sciences over recent decades has been somewhat facilitated through the development of “light” technologies that we can consider as bio-imaging oriented, as in the case of confocal and two-photon excitation microscopy [2]. In particular, in the eld of uorescence microscopy there is continuing parallel progress [3,4]. So, light technology in biology is more than just optics. We aim to see the sharpest details in living systems starting from our “obsession” for those advances relating to spatial and temporal resolution coupled with the intrinsic property of visible light to produce moderate and controllable perturbation on biological systems, say, under the microscope.