As we saw in Chapters 4 and 5, the first premise is a categorical proposition. The second premise and the conclusion are singular statements. Singular statements can be treated as universal propositions or particular propositions, as long as we do so consistently (5.3A). So, we can treat the argument as either an AAA-1 or an AII-1. Both Venn diagrams and the rules for judging the validity of categorical syllogisms show that the forms AAA-1 and AII-1 are valid.