The fundamental purpose of trade is to satisfy human wants. This fundamental fact was not, however, made the basis of Russia's foreign trade. The study of the financial system of Russia, in its various aspects of Banking, Currency, National Debt, and Taxation, has shown how very far-reaching and complete was State control over this aspect of the economic life of the country. The establishment of the gold standard of currency was deliberately carried out by the Government, since it realized that an unstable currency had unfavourable reactions upon foreign trade, and the whole economic life of the country. Transport is perhaps the aspect of the economic activities of Russia that illustrates most clearly the predominant influence of the State as an organizing and creative factor. Industrial development was an essential part of the State policy of rendering Russia self-sufficing, and bringing her up to the economic level of the other great Powers of Europe.