Russia's foreign trade was made the subject of the same theoretical controversies that characterized the interpretation of all the other branches of her economic life. On the outbreak of the war in 1914 the trade balance suffered an immediate change, which reacted unfavourably upon Russia; for 1914 and 1915 it showed a deficit of 141 million roubles, and 736 million roubles respectively. Russia's tariff policy during the nineteenth century falls roughly into the three following divisions. 1800–24: Prohibitive Tariff, 1824–76: Mitigation of Prohibitive Duties, and 1876 Onwards: Reinforcement of Protective Policy. The Russo-German Commercial Treaty of 1894 was preceded by a tariff war of great intensity between the two countries. The only change to be noted in the relations between the two countries during the period 1905–14, was the imposition of a duty of 30 kopeks per pood on grain imported into Russia through Germany over the Western frontier.