Russia's export trade was based mainly on her export of grain, particularly wheat, which accounted on the average for 48 per cent. The Southern provinces showed a remarkable increase in productivity, and rapidly became main wheat-producing area. These provinces, which also held the ascendancy as producers of coal and iron, were developing on entirely modern lines, mainly by the assistance of foreign capital and foreign enterprise. Peasant farming was the most important factor in Russian agriculture, and it was conducted on very primitive lines. Among the various classes of imports, manufactured goods played an important part, accounting for 33 per cent. The increase in the import of mineral fuel, metals and metal manufactures was very striking, rising in value from 159.8 million roubles in 1909, to 284.9 million roubles in 1913. Among the imports of animal products, including manures, tallow, skins and hides, special interest attaches to the former, as being an indication of improving agricultural conditions within the country.