The sustainable development goals of the United Nations, which are aimed at improving the livelihood of people by 2030, especially in developing countries, require company participation in achieving them. Experts argue that the corporate social responsibility (CSR) programs of companies can contribute to sustainable development goals. Hence, the purpose of this chapter is to explore the roles of companies in contributing to sustainable development goals of developing countries through their CSR programs. This chapter presents a review of the literature exploring the concepts of sustainable development and CSR in developing counties, and whether it is possible for companies to be responsible and yet sustainable in such a challenging business environment. This literature review reveals overlaps in the concepts of sustainable development and CSR that need to be clariﬁ ed. There are also gaps in the literature on the ‘public roles’ of companies in contributing to sustainable development goals, such as poverty eradication in developing countries.