DOI link for Conclusion
This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The research presented started with the transformation of Chinese cultural policy from simply imposing ideological propaganda to boosting the domestic cultural industry, regulating the culture market and exerting ideological control. The rapid marketisation and strengthened ideological control of the cultural realm during the reform era, especially in Hu's time, brought about contradictory effects on the dissemination of foreign popular culture in China. In China, the official version of nationalism is patriotism, which encourages loyalty to the party-state, integration of territory and independence of sovereignty. Such patriotism is indoctrinated by state-led patriotic education, which creates historical narratives of national pride in ancient China and national humiliation in modern history through formal educational institutions and popular culture products. Studies on Chinese nationalism in the 1990s focus on the nationalistic discourses of elites, who are writers, intellectuals and scholars.