Ritual activities and their attendant buildings, clothes, and assorted paraphernalia provide the emblems of a religion and become, for the members of the religion themselves, modes for the expressions of their identity. The witness to faith consists of repeating the two phrases, "There is no god but God," la ilaha illa ‘llah, and "Muhammad is the messenger of God," Muhammadun rasul Allah. While the daily prayer may be said anywhere and may be said alone, the Friday noon prayer is held in a large jami’ or "congregational" mosque. The phenomenon of churches turned into mosques provides an interesting illustration of such elements. During the ninth month of the hijri calendar, Ramadan, a fast called sawm or siyam is enjoined upon Muslims. Fasting in Islam is undertaken more often than simply during Ramadan. Performed during the first half of the last month of the year, Dhu’l-Hijja, the hajj requires a state of ritual sanctity for the activities.