Human and wild primates have a long history of sharing many types of parasites, but recent human cultural behaviors are changing primate habitats and the ecological niches of the parasites and vectors, and increasing the potential for host switching and the emergence of new diseases. Vector-borne parasites are particularly challenging, because direct contact is not needed between humans and wild primates when there is an intervening mobile vector. The behavior, characteristics, and ecological niches of wild primates affect the transmission of parasites. Among the primates, humans are closest in evolutionary history to the African great apes. Hunting choices affect which wild primates are more likely to come into contact with humans. Primate pet keeping often occurs in the context of bushmeat hunting when orphaned juveniles or infants are taken back into human domestic settings. Pets are not only in direct contact, but may also expose their owners to parasites in urine, feces, and other body fluids.