This chapter presents the theoretical context of the turn toward participatory visual and digital research in the social sciences, and maps out a process for translating theory into practice. Many critical social scientists in the qualitative research tradition have embraced participatory and visual/multimedia approaches in response to the varied criticisms leveled at traditional ethnography. The participatory action research (PAR) tradition offers a well-developed framework for breaking down barriers between researchers and "subjects" and between analysis and praxis. PAR attempts to forge collaborative research relationships in which community partners take an active role in studying problems alongside a traditional researcher to develop strategies for change. PAR acknowledges and attempts to redress power inequalities inherent in knowledge production. The chapter discusses how to include participants meaningfully in research design, how to use visual and digital media appropriately, and how to document the research process so that participants and researchers can consider their practice self-reflexively.