This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book focuses on certain of the philosophies that developed in India and China because, in each case, the roots of the traditions to be examined are found in non-Hellenic cultures. It unapologetically concentrates on early Indian philosophy and early Chinese philosophy. The book shows how such familiar questions are treated from unfamiliar philosophical perspectives by creating a bridge between different perspectives and draws attention to the relevance of the philosophies of Asia to contemporary global concerns. It explores the most influential forms of philosophy to emerge from this prolonged time of social unrest. The book focuses on Confucian philosophies and Daoist philosophies, although other forms of philosophy which developed in dialogue with these, such as Mohism and Legalism. It also focuses on ethics and human nature within Confucian thought. This naturally leads to a discussion of authenticity, concentrating on Daoist approaches.