This chapter introduces the main concepts of Daoist philosophy while showing how it evolved as a critical response to competing views of the Way, most notably the Way of Kongzi. For the Daoist of the Daodejing, integrity, or authenticity, is achieved when one acts spontaneously in accordance with the Dao. Yang Zhu thought that political engagement and authenticity were practical contradictions; the Daodejing attempted to demonstrate how one could live authentically in harmony with the Dao and yet engage in politics. The chapter explores the main concepts of Daoist philosophy by explaining the different ways Yang Zhu, 'Laozi' and Zhuangzi answered the two key questions: 'How to live an authentic life?' and 'What is the best way to preserve life and avoid injury?' The name Laozi is used for convenience, though, as shorthand for 'whoever is responsible for the ideas expressed in the Daodejing' and to refer to the representative thinker of the second stage in the development of Daoism.