This conclusion presents some closing thoughts on the key concepts discussed in the preceding chapters of this book. The book examines the effects of domestic political and international institutions on investors' perceptions of the sovereign credibility of leftist governments. It tests whether financial market participants perceive leftist governments to be less creditworthy in sovereign bond markets when other important economic and political conditions are taken into consideration. The book also tests whether the government's political orientation affects a country's creditworthiness when other important economic conditions are controlled for. It also tests whether democratic institutions counter the depressing effects of a leftist government on sovereign credit ratings. The book then provides the advantages of democracy for maintaining sovereign credibility. It then examines the role of international institutions in building sovereign credibility. It specifically examines the role of the International Monetary Fund (IMF).