This chapter considers the contribution of applied medical anthropologists who work to deepen the cultural understanding of technical experts and medical practitioners. It introduces the perspective of other medical anthropologists who see their role as that of a social activist. Applied medical anthropologists continue to work on government-supported projects, but nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and multilateral organizations play an increasingly important role in creating employment opportunities for social scientists. A practical result of the Ronald Reagan agenda was the evaporation of government employment for applied anthropologists. In the AIDS prevention program in Zaire the anthropologist also acted as a social critic who helped to reveal and challenge the conditions that put women at risk for infection in the first place. In the early years of international development, the role of anthropologists was largely limited to troubleshooting problems that arose as projects were implemented.