Until a few decades ago, at least up to the time of World War II, the traditional view in most countries was that, even though governments conducted censuses and collected demographic data, it was not their task to concern themselves directly with the growth of population. The author shall briefly compares the situation in this respect in Japan, China, and India, and the measures their governments are taking to deal with it. China offers better prospects for increasing her agricultural production. Of three countries only Japan, with its much smaller population of 120 million, is basically in a position to provide a major share of its grain requirements for food and feed through foreign imports. For the time being, at any rate, the principal difference between Japan and the other two countries regarding food supplies is that Japan could basically feed a growing population for quite some time to come by increasing its imports of grain for food and feed.