Recent years have seen a major revival of inter­ est in methods that promote greater employee involvement and participation (EIP) in the work­ place. To provide an organizational infrastructure for EIP, companies often create various kinds of teams, councils, committees, and review boards that are representational in nature and are intended to facilitate information exchange and two-way communication, improve efficiency and product quality, promote joint problem solving, decentral­ ize decision making, delegate power and respon­ sibility to lower-level employees, and increase mo­ rale and organizational commitment. In some in­ stances, the structure and operation of EIP is jointly negotiated by a company and labor union through the collective bargaining process. Given, however, that today only one out of ten private-sector work­ ers in the United States is covered by a union con­ tract, most EIP initiatives are in nonunion firms and are thus management designed and operated.