The current debate in academic and business circles in the United States over section 8(a)(2), the National Labor Relations Act’s ban on “domi­ nated” labor organizations (company unions), the fact of dramatic union decline in the United States, and the post-NAFTA atmosphere in labor rela­ tions that features employer confidence, manage­ ment aggressiveness against unions, an active search for a nonunion environment either through plant shutdowns or the encouragement of non­ union representation forms, has heightened busi­ ness interest and renewed curiosity about com­ pany unions.