The conduct of labor relations in Canada and the United States is typically most closely identified with the contemporary system of collective bar­ gaining. Indeed, in the Canadian federal public service, the right of employees to form unions and engage in collective bargaining originated with the passage of the Public Service Staff Re­ lations Act in 1967. While this represented a major turning point in federal public-service labor rela­ tions, it was, in fact, not the beginning of the for­ mal system of industrial relations. Instead, it was a natural extension of what was then a nonunion system of labor and employment relations in the federal public service that had been in existence since the end of World War II and that had a for­ mal arrangement for joint labor-management con­ sultation as its centerpiece. This chapter examines the origins and development of the joint employee-employer council that afforded employ­ ees of the Canadian federal government a formal forum for joint consultation with their employer prior to the advent of unionism.