The German works council, or Betriebsrat, con­ tinues to attract considerable attention in the United States because of the precipitous and on­ going decline in unionism in the private sector, where just 9.8 percent of the workforce is cur­ rently unionized. The works council is seen by many U.S. observers as offering an alternative form of worker representation that meets the re­ quirements of equity (i.e., industrial democracy) and efficiency. Given these supposed attributes, it should come as no surprise to learn that some have seen it as forming the basis of a participa­ tion mandate.