By 1215, Geoffrey o f Vinsauf (who was probably from Normandy, but who was educated in England) had put the finishing touches to a Latin manual on the art o f writing poetry. Called Poetria nova (‘the new poetics’) it expressed in a medieval idiom the ideas for writers earlier put forward by such classical authors as Cicero and Horace. Following them, its intention was to provide poets with models for planning, developing, describing, and above all amplifying, the meaning o f their compositions. Poetria nova is one o f a number o f similar treatises composed at the turn o f the twelfth century, and would not merit special attention here were it not for the fact that Chaucer himself referred to it. In the N un’s Priest’s Tale the narrator wishes for the ‘sentence’ (meaning) and ‘loore’ (technical expertise) o f ‘Gaufred, deere maister soverayn’ (3347-51).