The chapter distinguishes the three phases of European engagement with Iran, which ultimately led to the deal: the negotiations of the France, Germany, and the United Kingdom (E3)/European Union (EU) with Iran (2003–05); the inconclusive talks in the E3/EU+3 formats (2006–12); and the final stretch of negotiations that culminated in the Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action (JCPOA) (2013–15). The Paris agreement of November 2004 was the 'mid-term success' of the E3 initiative: a little over a year after the Tehran declaration of October 2003 marked the beginning of a process and a little less than a year before this process collapsed after the election of President Ahmadinejad. The EU's priority during this period shifted from achieving consensus with Iran to maintain a broad international coalition that would increasingly weigh in on Tehran to scale back its nuclear program.