In this chapter we note that the growth of incarceration is a global concern. And as prison populations swell, there will inevitably be more and more prisoners who will eventually be released back into the community. Accordingly, this chapter presents an overview of the research regarding prison victimization. It begins with a discussion of the nature and extent of victimization in prison. It then discusses the various sources of violence and victimization in prison, including individual/demographic sources (e.g., age, race, gender), contextual and situational sources (e.g., unstructured and risky routines), and institutional sources (e.g., prison crowding and organizational incentive structures). Key theoretical perspectives are also reviewed, including the classic importation and deprivation models, as well as more contemporary management perspectives. The consequences of victimization in prison are then discussed in terms of inmate health and post-release behavior. The chapter ends with a discussion of gaps and challenges as we move ahead, as well as a listing of key readings and discussion questions.