This introduction presents an overview of the key concepts discussed in the subsequent chapters of this book. The book describes the diverse roles of men as fathers within different family constellations, taking into account the changing dynamics of childrearing patterns and the ethos of childhood across cultural communities. It presents some of the tenets of prominent theories and models that have guided much of the work on father involvement with children to date. The book discusses the diverse family constellations within which fatherhood is realized and in which men share responsibilities in providing and caring for children. It provides select accounts of what the students know about the levels and quality of different dimensions of fathers’ involvement with children: prenatal care and pregnancy, the birthing process, feeding and holding, warmth and affection, discipline, playing, and cognitive, educational, and technological activities. The book outlines some of the connections between paternal involvement and children’s cognitive and social-emotional development.