ABSTRACT

Thefinalpartofthenineteenthcentury(thelastthirtyyears)openedpropitiouslyforlinguistics,oratleastforitshistorical-comparativebranch. Thesuccessesofthedisciplinewereuniversallyacknowledged.Mostandeventuallyall-GermanUniversitiestaughtthesubject;anumber ofotherEuropeancountriesfollowedsuitandtheUnitedStatesalso begantoplayanimportantrole(seeabove,p.207ff.).OutsideGermany thepreviousexpansionwaspartlyduetoGermanscholarswhohad soughtandfoundacademicpositionsabroadbutnowtherewasanew generationofnativescholarsandtheperipherybegantoinfluencethe centre.Wehavealreadymentionedsomeoftherelevantevents.Atraditionalhistoryof'linguisticscienceinthenineteenthcentury'suchas thatofPedersen([I93I]I962)listsforthegenerationsbornfromthe I83ostotheI85osanumberoflinguistswhooriginatedincountries otherthanGermany:Britain,Denmark,France,Italy,Russia,theScandinaviancountries,Switzerland,etc.WorkonRomance,afterDiez,is cultivatedbyFrenchscholarssuchasPaulMeyer(I840-I927)orGaston Paris(1839-1903),byDanessuchasK.Nyrop(1858-1931),bySwiss authorssuchasJ.Gillieron(1854-1926),byItalianssuchasAscoliand Mussafia.TheGermanUniversitiesofferweightycontributions,butthe archetypalGermanwork,therealreplacementforDiez'sgrammarand etymologicaldictionary,isduetoW.Meyer-Ltibke(1861-1936),who wasaSwissbybirthandbecameprofessoratViennabeforemoving toBonn.Wehaveseenalreadyhowcosmopolitantheworkonphoneticswas:BritainandFrancehadanimportantroletoplaywith,onthe onehand,e.g.AlexanderMelvilleBell,AlexanderEllisandHenry Sweet, 1and,ontheother,PaulPassy(I859-1940),theinitiatorofthe IPAtranscription,andtheabbePierreRousselot(1846-1924),oneof thefoundersofexperimentalphonetics.ButtherewerealsoJ.A.Lundell

(1851-1940)inNorway,OttoJespersen(1860-1946)inDenmark,etc. Anexperimentalphoneticslaboratory('gabinettodiglottologiasperimentale')wasfoundedbyF.L.PulleintheUniversityofPisain1890, oneyearearlierthantheinstitutionofanequivalentlaboratoryatthe CollegedeFrance(Bolelli1965a).EvenintheprivilegedfieldofIndoEuropeanstudies,non-Germaninfluencehadbeguntobefelt:onceagain onemayrefertotheItalianAscoli,butweshouldalsoconsiderthe RussianF.F.Fortunatov(1848-1914)andtheBelgianE.Tegner(18431928)orthethreegreatDanishscholarsV.Thomsen(1842-1927),Karl Verner(1846-1896),HermannMoller(1850-1923),orthesomewhat youngerSwissscholarsJacobWackernagel(1853-1938)andFerdinand deSaussure(1857-1913).FinallywecannotignoreaSanskritistofthe calibreoftheAmericanW.D.Whitney(seeabove,p.207ff.).