This chapter examines two themes related to education policy. A major portion of the chapter is concerned with educational reform. The second theme is equality and integration. If we understand reform as meaning change, then the 1980s can be characterized by change in educational policy, though how deep that change has been and how successful it will be remains debatable. In 2002, the federal No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law by President George W. Bush, providing the framework for federal educational policy. The experience with NCLB created pressure for continued changes. Those pressures led to the demise of NCLB and its replacement by the Common Core and by the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA). Both of those innovations are at risk with the new Trump administration. But the federal government, as we have seen, can shape the environment in which we educate our children.