Examining the role of China's sub-national regions in the country's dynamic entanglement with globalization has showed how different regions have played diverse roles both in China's economic and social transformations and in changes in the shape and nature of globalization itself. The dynamic global context for China's development, as well as the strategic political and economic concerns of China's leadership, have informed and been informed by regional development. This chapter suggests that they fall into three broad areas. First, the geographical scale, diversity and complexity of China's regions requires a step change in the way in which governments, businesses, investors and others outside China engage with the country. Second, as was made particularly clear in the discussion of the belt and road initiative, geography and location still matter. Finally, getting to grips with the ongoing development of China's regions and their global interactions creates a substantial research agenda.