This chapter focuses on the covert and overt forms of medical abuse that institutionalized women face. The most obvious gender-specific medical need of women is gynecological care. The medical model for heart disease prevention and treatment is a prime example for viewing a specific medical condition through the lens of gender. The chapter then provides case studies that display the current state of institutionalized medical care throughout the world. It presents an argument for why the medical abuses occurring to incarcerated women constitutes a gender-specific human rights violation. Additional evidence of the gender-specific need for females to regularly see a doctor who specializes in women's reproductive health includes the high prevalence of cervical, ovarian, and breast cancers. For incarcerated women, the subpar medical care they receive may lead to misdiagnoses and delays in medical care. The WHO states that the human papilloma virus (HPV) causes cervical cancer, which is one of the leading causes of worldwide female cancer mortality.