This chapter examines the bonds that are formed between mother and child, and the effect that imprisonment has on those bonds. The development of mother-child trust, closeness, and bonding often occurs in the first few hours after childbirth and continues to develop throughout nursing and breastfeeding. Current international and domestic legislation that stipulates recommendations for maintaining and strengthening the relationships between imprisoned women and their children will be provided. The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child specifically addresses incarcerated mothers and their children. When examining the mother-child relationship of incarcerated women, there are two important parts to consider: the rights of the mother and the rights of the child. The removal of a child from their mother causes significant social, economic, and physical hardships that result in stress, disease, and an increased propensity for criminality for both mother and child.