This chapter has sought to set out many of the changes that are occurring in modern military organizations. The discernible trends in most major Western armed forces are in the direction of specialization. Part of this is due to the professionalization of armies, but part is also due to the highly technical nature of modern military operations. Along with the rise of professionalism in many European armies, there has been a concomitant rise in the status of soldiers as government employees, with the attendant rights and labor regulations. In some armies, such as the Austrian Army, which has retained conscription, the workday for soldiers is highly restrictive, and most exercises that exceed the normal workday must be accounted for with overtime pay. The term "armed social workers" has been used to describe the kinds of work that many soldiers find themselves doing, not only domestically, but increasingly abroad, as operations shift from fighting enemies to helping reconstruction efforts.