This chapter considers the history and contemporary provision of performance-based education and training with a predominantly western classical music focus, and identifies some of the pertinent issues facing educators and students. It begins with an historical overview of performance-based music education, and next considers some of the current issues confronting practitioners and educators. The chapter outlines the philosophies underpinning existing programmes in Australia is followed by analysis of curricula in terms of structure and content, and includes for comparison several non-classical programmes. Australia has an enviable system of Technical and Further Education (TAFE). Universities offer TAFE graduates up to two years' credit for an Advanced Diploma, although few have embraced the potential for collaborative programmes and seamless articulation. It illustrates the allocation of time within the core units of Australia's performance-based undergraduate degrees. A broad approach was taken to determine the philosophy of Australia's 24 Bachelor of Music degrees.