This chapter explains the proliferation of power sources outside the state and has sparked the debate on the place of non-state actors in international law. It argues that the obligations of Armed Non-State Actors (ANSAs) under human rights law should follow a principled approach based on a hierarchy of international sources and the quality of the respective ANSA. The examination of ANSAs' obligations and accountability reveals a need to move away from the traditional state-centred approach and to adapt international law to the particularities of armed non-state actors. The lack of accountability mechanisms specifically addressed to ANSAs is a symptom of a statecentred approach and it is likely to reach a dead end if we stick to the existing avenues. Consequently, it could lead to a decrease in primary rules violations, thus serving a preventive role, while it would also contribute to the values of justice.