Competency-based education (CBE) has been adopted by industries, professions and national training systems all over the world, and the aviation industry is no exception. The aviation industry is not alone in its adoption of CBE. In many jurisdictions, training for roles in engineering, psychology, education, medicine and law has become competency-based. The competence tradition of CBE can also be seen in psychology, nursing, and engineering, and also some national training systems—for example, in France. The performance tradition of CBE is common in education and training systems that are focused on initial preparation for skilled occupations. An essential feature of CBE is the use of written statements/texts that represent competent participation in a practice. Advocates of CBE argue that the approach has distinctive benefits. Some of these benefits are stated in terms of the approach itself and some contrast CBE with traditional or alternative approaches.